As in guaranteed hits on a torso sized target?
What position ....
shaking with adrenalin and fatigue after assaulting up a hill??
Or cool and calm, on a bench at the range??
With IRON SIGHTS, in DIM LIGHT??
With a clear high powered scope with built in reticle that does the ballistic dope for you??
Worst case scenario in the real world ...
not very long at all.
EG: I once missed a shot at a home intruder inside my bedroom.
Best case scenario ...
as far as the target can be seen and properly identified as a valid shootable. With any good .308 Win/ 7.62 NATO rifle, that can be over 1000 yds.
Personally, in the real world, not just on the internet chat groups where mile long one shot kills seem to be the norm, I wss once a competitor in the DCRA matches, which went to 1000 yds. I was never that good, but I witnessed some incredibly shooting at 1000 yds, with IRON SIGHTS, MILITARY ISSUE 7.62 NATO AMMO ( standard issue ... not "match grade"), and DCRA converted to 7.62, #4 ☆ Lee Enfield "antique" rifles.
Any one who stood up at 1000.yds in front of these guys was a goner.
With standard ammo and sights 800+ is getting out there. I was shooting my .308 Remington and Mk12 Mod 0 at 1200 yards one day. Thought I'd try the M1A with irons and M80 ball. Friend couldn't even spot the hits with the scope.
From the days of black powder cartridge single shot rifles, short range was up to 300 yards, mid range was 400 through 700 yards and long range was 800 to 1000 yards.
And, by the way, this was with peep sights, not scopes.
So, I will stay with those definitions.
It varies with the weapon. All ranges listed are with out the scopes being fitted. With my M1A at least 800 yards. Colt AR15 Heavy barrel out to 500 yards. 45/70 trapdoor 200 yards because after that it becomes more of a mortar then a rifle. Most of my Ruger big bore pistols are sighted at 100 yards.
I agree with Laz...depends, with the M1a on a std day 300 yds is long for me...If my job was killing a enemy first time 1000 yds I would use a different weapon. With regards to the "Out dated and old" Enfield my 303 Mk2 No4 will hit a 2 foot by 4 foot man target all day at 300 yds...I hit 10 out of 10 at 622 yds against a 4 by 4 plywood sheet, most center shots with about a 12 inch spread...ie hits. Ammo...S&B hunting Rounds.
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